Kendo Terms

Kendo Terms

This kendo glossary was developed by Saeko & Tom Tew Sensei in order to help expose students to kendo terms in Japanese. It is a compilation of information gained from experience coupled with data extracted from other terminology collections (such as the AJKF, FIK, AUSKF, and various local dojos). It’s content is open for all kendoists to share.

“Term”– includes a kendo term and associated definition; terms are sorted in alphabetical order.
“Category”– a rough attempt at classifying the terms into logical groups. By using the dropdown list, you can filter on any category to somewhat shorten the list. Categories include:

  • Armor- terms related to kendo equipment other than the shinai
  • Body Motions- describes body movements excluding footwork
  • Clothing- terms related kendo gi, excluding armor
  • Commands- standard/common commands used by instructors or shinpan
  • Etiquette- proper terms related to kendo manners
  • Footwork- describes basic footwork
  • Shiai- terms related to a shiai, including rules & judging
  • Shinai- describes parts of a shinai
  • Special Terms- anything that couldn’t be categorized in other groups
  • Striking/Waza- lists the various techniques a kenshi can learn & use
  • Warming Up & Drills- includes common terms for warm up, and practice

If you see any errors or would like to add a term please contact Tom Tew at; any suggestions are welcome!

Also available in Microsoft Excel version. Click here to download a copy.

Age-koteWhen the kote is held above the pit of the stomach while executing a strike.Special Terms
AiAt the same time; for example, ai-kakari geiko is when both partners do kakari geiko at the same time.Striking/Waza
Ai-uchiSituation in which both players score valid strikes simultaneously, e.g., one effectively strikes the opponent's men at the same time the opponent successfully strike his /her do. During matches, neither strike is considered valid (they cancel each other out).Striking/Waza
AisatsuGreeting or courtesy exchanged when meeting another person; actions or words which express good wishes, gratitude, or affection. As politeness is highly valued in kendo, aisatsu is considered very important.Etiquette
Arigatō gozaimasu"Thank you very much."Etiquette
Ashi-sabakiFootwork used when attacking or evading; six types include ayumi-ashi, fumikomi-ashi, hiraki-ashi, okuri-ashi, suri-ashi and tsugi-ashi.Footwork
Ato-geikoLiterally after (ato) practice (keiko, pronounced with a "g"), usually a second practice session for advanced kenshi following a primary practice session which stresses kihon.Warming Up and Drills
Ayumi-ashiOne method of footwork used to move far and quickly in the forward/backward direction using ordinary walking movements made with suri-ashi (sliding feet).Footwork
BassokuA penalty for an infraction or foul.Shiai
BōguKendo armor consisting of men, kote, dō, and tare.Armor
BokkenWooden sword, primarily used for kendo kata.Shinai
BokutōSame as bokken.Shinai
Chaku-sōThe manner of wearing keikogi, hakama, and bōgu.Etiquette
ChakuzaCommand to sit down on the floor.Commands
ChigiriThe metal wedge in the shinai's hiltShinai
Chikai-maaiThe state of being closer to the opponent than issoku-itto-no-maai (the ideal distance for both attacking and defending).Body Motions
Chūdan-no-kamaeBasic kamae, with the kensen pointed at the opponent's throat.Body Motions
ChuiA warning; the first chui is without penalty, the second becomes hansoku, or a point for the other participant.Shiai
ChūkenMiddle player in a team match.Shiai
ChusenA winner selected by vote among the judge(s) or referees.Shiai
Counting (1 thru 10)Ichi, ni, san, shi, go, roku, shichi, hachi, ku, jyu.Special Terms
Daihyosha-senPlayoff by representatives in a team match.Shiai
DaitōLong sword (usually used in reference to a standard bokken or the longer shinai used in ni-tō).Shinai
DanRanking system for advanced levels (1=lowest, 10=highest); equivalent to black belt in other martial arts .Special Terms
DatotsuStriking and thrusting; a valid point is referred to as yuko datotsu.Special Terms
Datotsu-buThe part of the shinai with which one should strike the opponent; refers to the jin-bu (side opposite the tsuru) around the region of the mono-uchi.Special Terms
Datotsu-buiThe correct striking or thrusting zones of the kendo-gu (protective gear).Special Terms
Datotsu-no-kikaiChance of strike.Special Terms
Debana wazaStriking at the exact time the opponent initiates an attackStriking/Waza
Chest and abdomen protector, made of leather trim plus a large hard shell of either plastic, fiber, or bamboo.Armor
Dō ari"Dō" (awarding of the dō point in a match).Shiai
Dō chikawaThe four loops on a do where dōhimo are attached.Armor
Dō daiThe hard protective shell of the dō, made of either fiber, plastic, or bamboo.Armor
Dō muneThe decorative top part of a dō made of leather.Armor
EnchōMatch overtime period.Shiai
Enzan no metsukeMeans to look at your opponent as looking at a far off mountain, so as to see the whole and not just a part. In this is particularly important in judging & reacting to an opponents intent.Special Terms
Fuho-koi-shobu-ariA winner resulting from a player's illegal act.Shiai
FukushinSub-referees in a match.Shiai
FukushōSecond to last player in a team match.Shiai
Fumikomi-ashiStomping of the right foot as it drives forward.Footwork
Furi-kaburiBig movement swing of the shinai above one's head.Body Motions
Fusei-shinaiAn illegal shinai for a match- too light, too long, or doctored.Shiai
FusenshōA match win by default, due to the opponent's absence or forfeit.Shiai
Go-No-Waza (Datotsu)A parry to a valid datotsu made from tsuba-zeri-ai.Shiai
GōgiReferee's conference during a match, held in the center of the court.Shiai
Gokaku-geikoKeiko style practice with an equal.Warming Up and Drills
HachimakiThin cotton towel that has been folded or rolled into a strip and then tied around the head; this style is worn by kenshi not wearing a men.Armor
HakamaKendo clothing worn on the lower part of the body; long divided skirt-like trousers.Armor
HansokuMatch foul, results in one half-point against the offending player. Hansoku include:
  • ashi-kake or ashi-barai: tripping an opponent off their feet
  • kosei-o-gaisuru-koi: an illegal act or move
  • jyogai: stepping outside the court line
  • oshidashi or tsukidashi: unfair pushing or shoving an opponent
  • shinai hanashi: dropping a shinai
  • tsuba-zeri-ai: stalling at tsuba-zeri-ai without any intent

  • Shiai
    Hansoku ikkai"First hansoku."Shiai
    Hansoku nikai, ippon ari"Second hansoku, one point" (point awarded to the opponent of the offending player).Shiai
    HanteiReferees' decision of the winner of a match.Shiai
    Harai wazaInitiating an attack by first striking an opponent's shinai to move it out of the way then striking an open area.Striking/Waza
    Hasso-no-kamaeThe ready position with the shinai held vertically by the right shoulder.Body Motions
    HasujiCutting mark made by a sword, or the angle of a cut.Striking/Waza
    Haya-suburiFast suburi; motions are A) step backward and raise the shinai, B) step forward and cut while counting at the time of the cut.Warming Up and Drills
    Hiki wazaStriking from tsubazeriai, with the body moving backward.Striking/Waza
    Hikitate-geikoAttack drills led by a senior instructor/sensei.Warming Up and Drills
    HikiwakeMatch draw (tie).Shiai
    Hiraki-ashiFootwork used when striking or defending with the body turned diagonally. Key points- moving diagonally right, move the right foot first then follow quickly with the left; when moving left, move the left foot first then follow quickly with the right; your upper body should always face the opponent directly.Footwork
    IgiA protest; generally done by a team manager immediately after a match.Shiai
    Ippon gachiA match decided by one point, due to time running out in sanbon-shobu.Shiai
    Ippon shōbuOne point match (first person to score wins).Shiai
    Issoku-itto-no-maaiA term originally appearing in the list of fighting strategies of the Ono-ha itto-ryu, it refers to maintaining a distance of approximately two shinais between oneself and the opponent. This distance is the turning point of offense and defense because one can attack by taking one step forward, and can avoid being hit by taking one step backward. Note the this distance is approximate, and can be affected by both height and shinai length.Body Motions
    Ji-geikoOpen practice (keiko).Warming Up and Drills
    JihōSecond player in a team match.Shiai
    Jikaku-mushiAn insult made to a player or referee.Shiai
    Jin-buThe portion from the tsuba to the tip of the shinai.Shinai
    Jiyū-keikoFree practice.Warming Up and Drills
    Jodan wazaAttacking from a jodan kamae position, where the shinai is raised above the head.Striking/Waza
    Jōdan-no-kamaeKamae with the shinai above the head, with the left hand above the forehead about one fist away.Body Motions
    JōgaiStepping out of bounds (this is a hansoku or foul).Shiai
    JosekiSeat of honor.Shiai
    Jyoge-suburiVertical swing to so that the shinai tip comes close to the floor.Warming Up and Drills
    KachinukiA method of conducting matches in which the winner remains and keeps fighting until defeated.Shiai
    Kaeshi wazaParrying/blocking then counterstriking.Striking/Waza
    Kaishi-senStarting line in the court.Shiai
    KakariThe court staff consisting of:
  • keiji gakari: scoreboard recorder
  • kiroku gakari: score recorder
  • senshu gakari: court announcer
  • tokei gakari: time keeper
  • Shiai
    Kakari-geikoAttack practice consisting of a short burst of continual striking with zanshin, usually for roughly 20 seconds; key points are to use big, fast motions, follow through completely, and use one breath as long as possible. The drill is intended to develop the kenshi's ability to see openings and react quickly as well as develop physical, mental, and spiritual strngth. At times when the motodachi is higher ranking, he or she may choose to counter attack the kenshi during kakari-geiko to make the drill more difficult.Warming Up and Drills
    KakegoeShout (coming together of spirit).Special Terms
    KamaeBasic stance; ready position.Body Motions
    Kamae-teCommand to assume kamae.Commands
    KantokuTeam manager.Special Terms
    Katate wazaOne handed strikes, such as yoko-men.Striking/Waza
    Katsugi wazaAttacking by moving the shinai from kamae to the left shoulder then immediately striking an opening the opponent exposes.Striking/Waza
    KeikoPractice, training.Warming Up and Drills
    Keiko-giKendo clothing worn on the upper part of the body, a thick jacket-like shirt.Armor
    KendōThe way of the sword; training the mind, body, and character through one-on-one striking practice using the shinai while wearing bōgu.Special Terms
    KensenThe tip of the shinai, farthest away from the hands.Shinai
    KenshiKendoist.Special Terms
    Ki-ken-tai-ichiA phrase which expresses the secret of effective offensive and defensive moves, mainly a striking move. Ki refers to spirit, ken refers to the handling of the shinai, and tai refers to the body movements and posture. When all three are in harmony and occur with the correct timing, they function together as one (ichi).Special Terms
    KiaiCan either be spirit/vigor or a shout or yell as the outcome of spirit (ie, spirit creates kiai, kiai doesn't create spirit).Special Terms
    Kiai-o-dashite"More kiai!."Commands
    KiguraiConfidence, presence, bearing.Special Terms
    KihonBasics.Special Terms
    Kihon uchiStandard practice striking, that is typically multiple strikes of one area (for example, striking men 6 times); the format is to come to kamae, execute seme, then strike and go through; this should not be confused with uchikomi geiko or kakari geiko.Warming Up and Drills
    Kihon-dōsaBasic exercises, including uchi-kata and suburi.Warming Up and Drills
    Kihon-shiaiTournament in which kihon is judged; usually includes rei-ho, kiri-kaeshi, and basic uchikomi.Shiai
    Kiri-kaeshiBasic exercise in which the sides of the men are struck repeatedly, typically in sets of a straight men followed by 4 strikes forward and 5 strikes backward.Warming Up and Drills
    Kiritsu"Stand up."Commands
    KōdanshaKendoist with a rank of 5th dan (godan) or higher.Special Terms
    KokyūBreathing.Special Terms
    Koshi-itaHardboard back panel of a hakama.Armor
    KōtaiChange places, alternate.Commands
    KoteProtective gloves, made of cotton and leather.Armor
    Kote ari"Kote" (awarding of the kote point in a match).Shiai
    Kote keraThe folds of a kote that help provide flexibility.Armor
    Kote kotegashiraThe front piece or head of the kote.Armor
    Kote tsutsuThe part of the kote protecting the wrist & forearm.Armor
    KumiawaseTournament match-ups.Shiai
    KyūRanking system for beginning levels (6=lowest, 1=highest); equivalent to white and colored belts in other martial arts.Special Terms
    Ma-aiDistance between opponents.Body Motions
    MassuguStraight, linear.Special Terms
    Mawari-geikoRotation keiko.Warming Up and Drills
    MejirushiRed or white tag tied to the crossed dō strings on the back, used to distinguish the players in a match; sometimes called "tasuki."Shiai
    MenKendo armor to protect the face, head, and shoulders.Armor
    Men ari"Men" (awarding of the men point in a match).Shiai
    Men himoThe two long cotton ties attached to the men, used for retention.Armor
    Men menbutonThe large cotton covering of the men.Armor
    Men menganeThe metal grill of the men, usually made out of steel, aluminum, or titanium.Armor
    Men tsukidareThe tsuki flap of the men that protects the throat.Armor
    Men-no-uchi, sankyodo"Basic men strike, three count movements" (1= raise shinai overhead from kamae, 2=strike, moving forward, 3=step back & return to kamae).Warming Up and Drills
    Men-o-tore"Take off your men."Commands
    Men-o-tsuke"Put on your men."Commands
    MetsukeUse of the eyes to see the opponent; as a saying, "Enzan no metsuke" means to look at your opponent as looking at a far off mountain, so as to see the whole and not just a part.Special Terms
    MokusōMeditation performed in the seiza position.Etiquette
    MonouchiThe region of the shinai most effective for striking, located between the tip and the nakayui.Shinai
    MotodachiPerson being struck to provide instruction, for example in uchikomi-geiko, kakari-geiko, or kihon shiai.Special Terms
    Munen-musoThe spiritual state of selflessness, free from worldly thoughts.  A mirror-like condition which reflects all phenomena.  The condition where the mind functions at its best when it is pure, whole, and undistracted, and the spirit is replete.Special Terms
    NafudaName tag worn on the center of the tare; also known as a zekken.Armor
    NakayuiThe leather wrap at the front third of a shinai.Shinai
    Naname-suburiSimilar to jyoge-suburi, only the shinai swing is a diagonal cut to the floor.Warming Up and Drills
    NaoreCommand to stop mokuso.Commands
    Nihon me"Second point" (continues sanbon-shobu after one player has scored the first point of the match).Shiai
    Nuke-tō"Draw the sword (shinai)."Special Terms
    Nuki wazaMoving out of the way to avoid an opponent's strike then counterstriking.Striking/Waza
    Oji-wazaDefensive techniques used in response to an opponent's attack; styles include:
  • kaeshi waza- parrying/blocking then counterstriking
  • uchiotoshi waza- blocking by striking the opponent's attack down then counterstriking
  • nuki waza- moving out of the way to avoid an opponent's strike then counterstriking
  • suriage waza- moving the opponent's attack out of the way via an upward sliding motion of the shinai, then counterstriking
  • Striking/Waza
    Okuri-ashiThe most basic, normal kendo footwork- right foot in front of the left, right foot slides forward followed by a sharp forward movement of the left foot, stopping roughly at the back and to the side of the right foot.Footwork
    Onegai shimasu"I request the favor (of a practice)" (said when beginning keiko with a more senior kenshi).Etiquette
    Osame-tō"Return the sword (shinai)."Special Terms
    Rei-giMatters of etiquette.Etiquette
    Rei-hōDoctrines of etiquette.Etiquette
    Renzoku wazaContinuous motion waza, also known as ni-dan or san-dan waza; multiple strikes executed in series without break.Striking/Waza
    Ritsu-reiStanding bow.Etiquette
    Sage-tōThe posture taken when performing ritsu-rei, with the shinai held in the left hand with the arm hanging naturally at the side; the tsuru faces downward and the hand next to the tsuba.Etiquette
    SakigawaThe leather covering on the tip of the shinai.Shinai
    San-sappoThere are three ways to forstall the opponent and get ahead of him/her.  "Killing the katana (sword)," killing the waza," and killing the ki (spirit)" are called san-sappo (the three ways of killing).  Killing the katana means to restrain and deflect the opponent's sword, thus destroying the use of the sword. Killing the waza  means to make the first move and constantly be on the offensive so as to not give the opponent an opportunity to initiate a waza.  Finally, killing the ki means that by restraining the outset of the opponent's attack and constantly dominating offensively, one can raise one's own level of ki and over whelm the opponent's ki.Special Terms
    Sanbon shōbuThree point match (first person to score two points wins).Shiai
    Sayū-menThe right and left striking zones of the men.Striking/Waza
    Seigan no kamaeKamae with the shinai point aimed at an opponent who is in jodan kamae's left kote.Body Motions
    Seiretsu"Make a line."Commands
    SeizaSeated attention position (literally correct sitting).Body Motions
    SemePressure applied to one's opponent.Body Motions
    SenpōFirst player in a team match.Shiai
    SenseiInstructor, usually with rank 4th dan (yondan) or higher.Special Terms
    Shiai-funoA winner when one of the opponents cannot continue the match.Shiai
    Shiai-geikoStyle of practice to approximate the feeling and spirit of a shiai.Warming Up and Drills
    Shiai-jikanMatch time limit.Shiai
    Shikake-wazaDirect offensive attacks without waiting on the opponent; styles include:
  • harai waza- initiating an attack by first striking an opponent's shinai to move it out of the way then striking an open area
  • hiki waza- striking from tsubazeriai, with the body moving backward
  • renzoku waza- continuous motion waza, also known as ni-dan or san-dan waza; multiple strikes executed in series without break
  • debana waza- striking at the exact time the opponent initiates an attack
  • katsugi waza- attacking by moving the shinai from kamae to the left shoulder then immediately striking an opening the opponent exposes
  • jodan waza- attacking from a jodan kamae position, where the shinai is raised above the head
  • katate waza- one handed strikes, such as yoko-men
  • Striking/Waza
    Shin (saki-gomu)The rubber spacer at the inside front tip of a shinai.Shinai
    Shin-ki-ryoku-ichiA phrase which expresses the secret of successful offense and defense.  Shin refers to the mind or the calm part of one's mental functions, and it is the ability to intuitively sense the opponent's condition and movements and to make judgments.  In Budo, this is called mushin.  Mushin refers to the mind which, even not knowing what is proper, is able to sense right and wrong.  Ki appears as an outward action based upon the judgement of the mind (shin), and so-called ki is the dynamic part of one's mental functions.  It is under the mind's command and moves according to its directions.  Ryoku refers to the strength of the body or of a waza.  Shin-ki-ryoku-ichi means that in response to a stimulus, something which is intuitively perceived and consciously decided by the mind is immediately expressed in the form of a waza by way of the mental functions.  All three of these actions must take place instantaneously.Special Terms
    Shin-kokyūDeep breathing exercise.Body Motions
    ShinaiBamboo sword used in kendo.Shinai
    Shinai-otoshiLosing control of the shinai (this is a hansoku).Shiai
    ShinpanJudge; referee.Shiai
    Shinpan-chōHead judge.Shiai
    Shinpan-shuninCourt judge.Shiai
    ShinsaPromotional exam; exams for kyu level kenshi are shinkyu shinsa, exams for yudansha are shodan shinsa, and exams for yudansha 5 Dan and above are called kodansha shinsa.Special Terms
    ShiseiPosture; a common command is "shisei o tadashite," or fix your posture.Body Motions
    ShizentaiNatural standing position.Body Motions
    Shōbu"Match" (continues sanbon shobu after each player has one point).Shiai
    Shōbu ari"Match done" (announces the end of the match).Shiai
    ShōmenThe side of the dojo or hall farthest from the main entrance, the side having the highest place of honor.Etiquette
    Shōmen-uchiA strike to the center of the men.Striking/Waza
    Shu-ha-riA maxim which is used generally in training and study. It is also used as a term which explains the levels of training in kendo. Shu is the level where one obeys the principals of a particular style (school) and learns the solidly. Ha is the level where one does not simply adhere to the style one has learned, but through interchange with other schools, expands and deepens one's own techniques. Ri is the level where one further develops one's art and establishes a new, personal style.Special Terms
    ShūgōGathering, meeting.Special Terms
    ShushinChief referee on court with two other assisting referees (shushin makes the match pronouncements).Shiai
    Shusseki-o-torimasu"Taking roll call."Special Terms
    Sogo-no-reiRitsu-rei to the opponent; the angle is about 15 degrees, and eye contact is maintained.Etiquette
    SonkyoThe crouching position in which begins and ends each bout.Body Motions
    SosaiAn offset when two players commit a foul as the same time and the fouls are offset.Shiai
    SuburiBasic exercise which simulates striking the men repeatedly, performed without an opponent.Warming Up and Drills
    Suburi-ikkyodoOne-count suburi (alternate striking forward and backward on each count).Warming Up and Drills
    Suburi-nikyodoTwo-count suburi (raise the shinai on the odd count; strike on the even count, alternating the going forward and backward and each strike).Warming Up and Drills
    SuigetsuSolar plexus.Special Terms
    Suri-ashiFootwork in which the feet do not lose contact with the floor (sliding).Footwork
    SuriageDeflecting the opponent's shinai using a circular sliding motion.Striking/Waza
    Suriage wazaMoving the opponent's attack out of the way via an upward sliding motion of the shinai, then counterstriking.Striking/Waza
    Tai-atariHitting with the body.Striking/Waza
    TaishōLast player in a team match (captain).Shiai
    TaitoHolding the shinai at waist level after bowing,with the shinai tip pointing backwards; the shinai should be on the point of the left hip, at an angle of roughly 45 degrees, with the tsuka-gashira in front of the center of the body.Body Motions
    TakeBamboo, sometimes used to refer to the staves of the shinai.Shinai
    TareThe armor that protects the hips, groin, and upper legs, made of cotton and cloth.Armor
    Tare kodareThe two back flaps of a tare.Armor
    Tare obiThe top part of a tare that the flaps (odare) & sash (waki himo) are attached to.Armor
    Tare odareThe three front flaps of a tare.Armor
    Tare waki-himoThe ties of the tare to hold in place.Armor
    Te-no-uchiTightening/loosening the grip on the shinai or adjusting the balance between the hands when striking or parrying.Body Motions
    TenuguiSame as a men towel; a thin cotton cloth that is wrapped around the head & hair and is worn under the men.Armor
    Toi-maaiA distance which is farther than issoku-itto-no-maai.Body Motions
    TsubaCircular guard on the shinai, typically made of plastic or leather.Shinai
    Tsuba DomeThe backing piece behind a tsuba to keep it from sliding down a shinai- typically made of rubber.Shinai
    Tsuba-zeri-aiThe position in which the opponents are close to each other with fists together.Body Motions
    Tsugi-ashiOne of the basic types of footwork, mainly used when striking from a long distance; the left foot (back foot) is pulled close to the right foot (front foot), then the right foot immediately takes a big step forward. It is used exclusively for moving forward.Footwork
    TsukaThe handle portion of the shinai.Shinai
    Tsuka-gashiraThe very end (bottom) of the tsuka.Shinai
    Tsuka-gawaThe leather grip at the bottom of the shinaiShinai
    Tsuki ari"Tsuki" (awarding of the tsuki point).Shiai
    Uchikomi-geikoPractice striking the basic points on the motodachi. The motion is constant and fast, but not as fast as kakari-geiko. The purpose is for warm-ups.The kenshi's movements should be big, with significant follow through. Motodachi will constanltly adjust the maai so that the kenshi must move forward and reach outward.Warming Up and Drills
    Uchikomi-no-juttokuRefers to the 10 virtues cultivated by practicing uchikomi:
    1. Actions become more intense and quicker
    2. Strikes become stronger
    3. Breathing becomes slower and more controlled
    4. Movements of the arms become freer
    5. The body becomes lighter and freer
    6. The sword can be handled more freely
    7. The lower body becomes more stabilized to prevent the loss of balance
    8. The eyes become sharper
    9. Uchi-ma (strike distance) becomes more clear
    10. Handling of the shinai becomes lighter and more dexterous.
    Body Motions
    Uchiotoshi wazaBlocking by striking the opponent's attack down then counterstriking.Striking/Waza
    WakareDuring keiko: "dismissed" (signals end of session); during shiai: "separate" (timer does not stop).Commands
    Waki-gakameReady position with the shinai downward and near the right foot (similar in position to kendo kata #4 shitachi).Body Motions
    WazaTechnique.Special Terms
    YudanshaKendoist with a rank of 1st dan (shodan) or higher.Special Terms
    Yuko datotsuDirectly translated, yuko datotsu is a valid strike. It is an intentional (not accidental), well executed and accurate cut that requires a number of key components to be considered good.Special Terms
    ZanshinMental and physical presence of spirit, especially after completing an attack.Special Terms
    ZekkenLess proper term for name tag worn on the center of the tare; more appropriate term is nafuda.Armor